|University of Arizona
|Chondrules; Cosmochemistry; Meteorites; Planet Formation; Sulfides; Planetary Sciences; Chondrites
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Chondritic meteorites are undifferentiated fragments of asteroids that contain the oldest solids formed in our Solar System. Their primitive, solar-like chemical compositions indicate that they experienced very little processing following accretion to their parent bodies. As such, they retain the best records of chemical and physical processes active in the protoplanetary disk during planet formation. Chondritic meteorites are depleted relative to the sun in volatile elements such as S and O. In addition to being important components of organic material, these elements exert a strong influence on the behavior of other more refractory species and the composition of planets. Understanding their distribution is therefore of key interest to the scientific community. While the bulk abundance of volatile elements in solid phases present in meteorites is below solar values, some meteorites record volatile-rich gas phases. The Rumuruti (R) chondrites record environments rich in both S and O, making them ideal probes for volatile enhancement in the early Solar System. Disentangling the effects of parent-body processing on pre-accretionary signatures requires unequilibrated meteorite samples. These samples are rare in the R chondrites. Here, I report analyses of unequilibrated clasts in two thin sections from the same meteorite, PRE 95404 (R3.2 to R4). Data include high resolution element maps, EMP chemical analyses from silicate, sulfide, phosphate, and spinel phases, SIMS oxygen isotope ratios of chondrules, and electron diffraction patterns from Cu-bearing phases. Oxygen isotope ratios and chondrule fO2 levels are consistent with type II chondrules in LL chondrites. Chondrule-sized, rounded sulfide nodules are ubiquitous in both thin sections. There are multiple instances of sulfide-silicate relationships that are petrologically similar to compound chondrules, suggesting that sulfide nodules and silicate chondrules formed as coexisting melts. This hypothesis is supported by the presence of phosphate inclusions and Cu-rich lamellae in both sulfide nodules and sulfide assemblages within silicate chondrules. Thermodynamic analyses indicate that sulfide melts reached temperatures up to 1138 °C and fS2 of 2 x 10^(-3) atm. These conditions require total pressures on the order of 1 atm, and a dust- or ice-rich environment. Comparison with current models suggest that either the environmental parameters used to model chondrule formation prior to planetesimal formation should be adjusted to meet this pressure constraint, or R chondrite chondrules may have formed through planetesimal bow shocks or impacts. The pre-accretionary environment recorded by unequilibrated R chondrites was therefore highly sulfidizing, and had fO2 higher than solar composition, but lower than the equilibrated R chondrites.Chalcopyrite is rare in meteorites, but forms terrestrially in hydrothermal sulfide deposits. It was previously reported in the R chondrites. I studied thin sections from PRE 95411 (R3 or R4), PCA 91002 (R3.8 to R5), and NWA 7514 (R6) using… Advisors/Committee Members: Lauretta, Dante S (advisor), Lauretta, Dante S. (committeemember).