AbstractsMedical & Health Science

Development of multifunctional polymeric nanoparticles by nano-emulsion templating as advanced nanocarriers targeting the blood-brain barrier

by Cristina Fornaguera Puigvert

Institution: Universitat de Barcelona
Year: 2015
Keywords: Emulsions (Farmàcia); Emulsions (Farmacia); Emulsions (Pharmacy); Nanopartícules; Nanopartículas; Nanoparticles; Teràpia intravenosa; Terapia intravenosa; Intravenous therapy; Polímers en medicina; Polímeros en medicina; Polymers in medicine; Barrera hematoencefàlica; Barrera hematoencefálica; Blood-brain barrier; Ciències de la Salut
Record ID: 1123712
Full text PDF: http://hdl.handle.net/10803/285368


Multifunctional polymeric nanoparticles (NP) represent a promising alternative for the treatment of neurodegenerative diseases using the intravenous route (i.v.). In current treatments, the effects of the intravenously injected drugs are systemic, requiring high drug doses to achieve therapeutic effects, thus causing severe side effects. NP can act specifically in a tissue provided that they are properly designed. An interesting approach is the preparation of NPs by nano-emulsion templating. Nano-emulsions (NE) are fine emulsions, with droplet sizes typically between 20 – 200nm. They can be prepared by the phase inversion composition (PIC) method, a low-energy emulsification method appropriate for pharmaceutical applications, since it can be performed at mild process conditions. Nanoparticles are obtained from nano-emulsions by solvent evaporation. To target the central nervous system (CNS), a specific targeting moiety on the nanoparticle surface is required to cross the blood-brain barrier (BBB), which is a current key goal under intense investigations. The aim of this work was to obtain multifunctional polymeric NP as advanced delivery systems able to cross the BBB. O/W polymeric NE were prepared by the PIC method and polymeric NPs were obtained by solvent evaporation. Polymeric NP with appropriate sizes for the i.v. administration (<1milimicron) were obtained. With the aim to design imaging systems, a model fluorescent dye and magnetic nanoparticles were encapsulated in polymeric NPs. An analgesic and an antiapoptotic drugs were also encapsulated into PLGA NP for therapeutic purposes. High encapsulation efficiencies were found for all tested compounds, attributed to the method of nanoparticle preparation as well as to low solubility of the components in the aqueous dispersion media. In addition, a sustained and controlled release of fluorescent dyes / drugs was achieved. NP surface was functionalized using various elements. On the one hand, it was functionalized with a monoclonal antibody against the transferring receptor, overexpressed in the BBB, to achieve an active targeting to the BBB. On the other hand, NPs were functionalized with oligonucleotides, to be used as non-viral gene delivery systems. Firstly, carbosilane cationic dendrons were covalently attached to nanoparticle surface to achieve a cationic surface. In a further step, antisense oligonucleotides, siRNA and plasmids were electrostatically bound to cationized nanoparticles. In vitro tests showed that the formulated NP did produce neither cytoxicity nor hemolysis. In addition, they were weak activators of the immune system and produced only a slight adsorption of blood proteins. Therefore, they are appropriate to be used by the i.v. route. NPs functionalized with oligonucleotides enhanced gene transfection in cell cultures, up to values comparable to those of commercial values (up to 90%). These NPs are advantageous in terms of toxicity issues over the commercial formulations. Therefore, they represent promising non-viral gene delivery systems. In…