AbstractsBiology & Animal Science

Systematic analysis of the sequence-structure-function relationships of thiamine diphosphate-dependent enzymes

by Constantin Vogel

Institution: University of Stuttgart
Department: Fakultät Energie-, Verfahrens- und Biotechnik
Degree: PhD
Year: 2015
Record ID: 1105835
Full text PDF: http://elib.uni-stuttgart.de/opus/volltexte/2015/9981/


Thiamine diphosphate (ThDP)-dependent enzymes form a vast and diverse protein family, both in the sequence space and in their functional potential. Of particular interest are the enantioselective C-C bond forming and cleavage reactions catalyzed by those enzymes. In these reaction, different ThDP-dependent enzymes provide distinct enantio- and chemoselectivities with often narrow substrate and product ranges. This specificity, which is beneficial for the enantiopure synthesis of fine chemicals like 2-hydroxy ketones, limits the scope of accessible products. Investigations of crystal structures of different ThDP-dependent decarboxylases revealed steric properties in the active sites of those enzymes to control the enantio- and chemoselectivity (S-pocket and donor-acceptor concept). Subsequent application of those concepts by modulation of the steric properties of enzymes’ active sites enabled rational engineering of biocatalysts with desired, but often only moderate, non-physiological enantioselectivities. The major objective of this thesis was to systematically analyze the sequences and structures of this enzyme family and to elucidate the relationships between sequence, structure and function. Detailed understanding of those relationships is pivotal for rational engineering and therefore necessary for the design of biocatalysts with desired selectivities. As compared to the enormous size of this enzyme family only a small number of representatives were experimentally characterized. Even less ThDP-dependent enzymes were modified by mutations in order to analyze effects of distinct amino acid residues and still less were structurally determined. Since the systematic analysis of the sequence-structure-function relationships requires information on the structure and function of a major fraction of family members, methods were developed and applied to increase the amount of available structure and function information. By making use of homology modeling, putative atom coordinates for enzymes lacking experimentally determined structure information were predicted. In addition, by development of a new database system that combines sequence, structure and function information, the acquisition of accurate and comparable biochemical data unambiguously linked to the biocatalysts’ amino acid sequences was enabled. Comparability of biochemical data and deduction of functional roles of certain residues requires comparable biochemical data on the one hand and methods to compare residues from different enzymes on the other hand. Introduction of standard numbering schemes for ThDP-dependent enzymes facilitated fast and accurate comparison of structurally equivalent positions without the need for structure information. The findings derived from those analyses accelerated the engineering of enzymes with desired enantio- and chemoselectivities and inter alia enabled the enzymatic, direct asymmetric synthesis of (S)-benzoins with excellent ees. Die Familie der Thiamindiphosphat (ThDP)-abhängigen Enzyme ist gleichermaßen sequenziell…