|Institution:||University of Illinois – Chicago|
|Keywords:||Multimedia; Surgery; Simulation; Motor learning|
|Full text PDF:||http://hdl.handle.net/10027/19495|
Introduction: Educational multimedia helps learners to develop a mental representation of complex procedures (e.g., Z-plasty) prior to hands-on performance. One design feature that Mayer’s theory of multimedia learning has yet to clarify is whether to present information as static vs. dynamic — an important distinction given the cost associated with creation of materials that learners typically use to study (e.g., textbook pictures vs. surgical videos). A recent meta-analysis in the general education literature demonstrated an advantage of dynamic multimedia for procedural skills, though the few included studies reported inconsistent results. We compared the effect of dynamic vs. static multimedia for preparing novice medical learners to perform a complex surgical procedural skill. Methods: Using a prospective two-arm design, novice medical learners (n=44) were randomly assigned to one of two conditions. The dynamic video showed a complete performance of the Z-plasty procedure, whereas the static video showed a number of key still frames from the dynamic video. Auditory information was identical in both conditions. Following the intervention (multimedia viewing, a Z-plasty pretest, and physical practice for 30 minutes), participants completed post, retention, and transfer tests. We measured performance using a global rating scale (GRS), and analyzed those data using an analysis of covariance (ANCOVA). Results: The ANCOVA [group (dynamic, static) by test (post-test, retention); covariate: pre-test] revealed a significant interaction between group and test (F(1, 41) = 4.33, p = .044). Post-hoc tests showed the interaction arose from the dynamic group improving from post- to retention test (p<0.05), whereas the static group’s performance deteriorated over that time (p=0.18). There were no significant differences for transfer testing (p=0.45). Conclusion: Our findings suggest that dynamic multimedia may be superior for skill retention. However, this benefit is minimal (0.25 points on a 5 point GRS). Additional studies are needed to clarify if the cost associated with dynamic multimedia justifies this small educational benefit. Advisors/Committee Members: Tekian, Ara S (advisor).