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Adjustment of empirically derived ground motion prediction equations (GMPEs), from a data- rich region/site where they have been derived to a data-poor region/site, is one of the major challenges associated with the current practice of seismic hazard analysis. Due to the fre- quent use in engineering design practices the GMPEs are often derived for response spectral ordinates (e.g., spectral acceleration) of a single degree of freedom (SDOF) oscillator. The functional forms of such GMPEs are based upon the concepts borrowed from the Fourier spectral representation of ground motion. This assumption regarding the validity of Fourier spectral concepts in the response spectral domain can lead to consequences which cannot be explained physically. In this thesis, firstly results from an investigation that explores the relationship between Fourier and response spectra, and implications of this relationship on the adjustment issues of GMPEs, are presented. The relationship between the Fourier and response spectra is explored by using random vibration theory (RVT), a framework that has been extensively used in earthquake engineering, for instance within the stochastic simulation framework and in the site response analysis. For a 5% damped SDOF oscillator the RVT perspective of response spectra reveals that no one-to-one correspondence exists between Fourier and response spectral ordinates except in a limited range (i.e., below the peak of the response spectra) of oscillator frequencies. The high oscillator frequency response spectral ordinates are dominated by the contributions from the Fourier spectral ordinates that correspond to the frequencies well below a selected oscillator frequency. The peak ground acceleration (PGA) is found to be related with the integral over the entire Fourier spectrum of ground motion which is in contrast to the popularly held perception that PGA is a high-frequency phenomenon of ground motion. This thesis presents a new perspective for developing a response spectral GMPE that takes the relationship between Fourier and response spectra into account. Essentially, this frame- work involves a two-step method for deriving a response spectral GMPE: in the first step two empirical models for the FAS and for a predetermined estimate of duration of ground motion are derived, in the next step, predictions from the two models are combined within the same RVT framework to obtain the response spectral ordinates. In addition to that, a stochastic model based scheme for extrapolating the individual acceleration spectra beyond the useable frequency limits is also presented. To that end, recorded acceleration traces were inverted to obtain the stochastic model parameters that allow making consistent extrapola- tion in individual (acceleration) Fourier spectra. Moreover an empirical model, for a dura- tion measure that is consistent within the RVT framework, is derived. As a next step, an oscillator-frequency-dependent empirical duration model is derived that allows obtaining the most reliable estimates of… Advisors/Committee Members: Scherbaum, Frank (advisor).