|Institution:||University of California – Irvine|
|Keywords:||Engineering; Environmental engineering; Transportation; Bus; Energy; Fuel Cell; Hydrogen; Hydrogen Infrastructure; Transit Agencies|
|Full text PDF:||http://www.escholarship.org/uc/item/9xx6518x|
Initiatives to improve air quality in urban areas and to mitigate climate change through the reduction of greenhouse gas emissions have resulted in new mandates and legislation to implement zero emissions vehicles (ZEV). While several studies have focused on fueling infrastructure for light-duty fuel cell electric vehicles, there is a lack of knowledge regarding the nature of hydrogen supply chains for fuel cell electric buses. This thesis presents an analysis of hydrogen infrastructures to guide policymakers and transit agencies in the identification of preferable scenarios for the deployment of hydrogen fuel cell electric buses.Based on research for light-duty vehicles conducted at the Advanced Power and Energy Program in the University of California, Irvine, two novel computer-based tools were developed to design and analyze environmentally sensitive hydrogen fueling infrastructure that addresses the wide range of requirements faced by transit agencies in the deployment of fuel cell buses. The first tool provides spatially-resolved allocation of hydrogen demand and identifies feedstocks for hydrogen production. The second tool provides a systematic evaluation of hydrogen supply chain scenarios through the analysis of well-to-wheel energy and water demand, and the emission of greenhouse gases and criteria pollutants. In addition, this evaluation includes a detailed analysis of the space requirements and operations modifications for the placement of hydrogen fueling infrastructure at transit agencies.The tools were used to establish hydrogen fueling infrastructures scenarios at three levels of deployment: national, state and county. At the national level, the spatial allocation of hydrogen demand and potential environmental benefits of different hydrogen scenarios were developed for transit agencies in the U.S. At the state level, the hydrogen demand allocation and spatial rollout of possible feedstock sources were established for the state of California. At the local level, preferable hydrogen scenarios were developed for a large transit agency (the Orange County Transportation Authority) along with the quantification of emissions and resources and cost projections of hydrogen distribution pathways.