|Institution:||University of Oulu|
|Keywords:||age difference; childhood; diabetic ketoacidosis; diagnosis; frequency; temporal change; type 1 diabetes; ajallinen muutos; diagnoosi; esiintyminen; ikä; ketoasidoosi; lapsuus; tyypin 1 diabetes|
|Full text PDF:||http://urn.fi/urn:isbn:9789526212579|
Abstract The aim of this work was to evaluate the frequency of diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) in children <15 years of age at the time of diagnosis of type 1 diabetes (T1D) at Oulu University Hospital over a period of 33 years (1982−2014) and throughout Finland in 2002−2005. The aim was to assess the effect of certain host characteristics (age at diagnosis, family history of T1D, T1D-associated HLA risk genotypes and participation in T1D prediction and prevention trials) on the frequency on DKA. A further aim was to assess temporal changes in the frequency of DKA. The overall frequency of diabetic ketoacidosis at the diagnosis of T1D in children <15 years was low both at Oulu University Hospital and over the whole country. A decrease in the frequency of DKA was observed at the university hospital during the years 1982−2001, but it then seemed to stabilize at just under 20.0%. The frequency in the whole of Finland during the period 2002−2005 was similar, i.e. 19.4%. The frequency of DKA at diagnosis in very young children (<2 years of age) at Oulu University Hospital decreased markedly during the period in question, being 50.0% in 1982−1991, 39.1% in 1992−2001 and 17.1% in 2002−2014 (p=0.021), and a similar decrease was seen in children <5 years (32.1% in 1982−1991, 17.7% in 1992−2001 and 13.0% in 2002−2014, p=0.007). The children aged 10−14.9 years at diagnosis, however, had an increased risk of DKA over the whole period studied here, and more attention should definitely be paid to this group in the future to reduce its DKA frequency. In the analysis of the data based on all children in Finland diagnosed with T1D in 2002−2005 the risk of DKA at diagnosis was lower in those with a first-degree relative affected by T1D. The children carrying a higher HLA-conferred risk of T1D had DKA less frequently at the manifestation of the disease. Prospective studies based on screening for HLA-DQB1-associated genetic susceptibility to T1D from cord blood and subsequent regular clinical, immunological and metabolic follow-up have been going on in Oulu University Hospital since 1995, and the children taking part have been found to have a reduced frequency of DKA (5%) at diagnosis. Genetic screening without follow-up did not prevent DKA at disease presentation. Tiivistelmä Väitöstyön tarkoituksena oli tutkia diabeettisen ketoasidoosin (DKA) esiintymistä alle 15–vuotiailla lapsilla tyypin 1 diabeteksen toteamisvaiheessa Oulun yliopistollisessa sairaalassa vuosina 1982–2014 ja koko Suomessa vuosina 2002–2005. Tavoitteena oli selvittää tiettyjen lapsen erityispiirteiden (ikä diagnoosihetkellä, perheen diabeteshistoria, diabetekseen liittyvien HLA riskigenotyyppien esiintyminen ja osallistuminen prospektiivisiin tyypin 1 diabeteksen seurantatutkimuksiin) vaikutusta ketoasidoosin esiintymiseen. Lisäksi tärkeänä tavoitteena oli tutkia mahdollisia ajallisia muutoksia ketoasidoosin esiintymisessä. Kaikkiaan ketoasidoosin esiintyminen oli matala alle 15–vuotiailla lapsilla tyypin 1 diabeteksen diagnoosihetkellä Oulun… Advisors/Committee Members: Veijola, R. (Riitta), Knip, M. (Mikael).