Essays on thetransition from unemployment to employment with a special emphasison start-up subsidies in Germany

by Jens Hogenacker

Institution: Universität Potsdam
Year: 2015
Posted: 02/05/2017
Record ID: 2125926
Full text PDF: https://publishup.uni-potsdam.de/opus4-ubp/frontdoor/index/index/docId/8746


The promotion of self-employment as part of active labor market policies is considered to be one of the most important unemployment support schemes in Germany. Against this background the main part of this thesis contributes to the evaluation of start-up support schemes within ALMP. Chapter 2 and 4 focus on the evaluation of the New Start-up Subsidy (NSUS, Gründungszuschuss) in its first version (from 2006 to the end of 2011). The chapters offer an advancement of the evaluation of start-up subsidies in Germany, and are based on a novel data set of administrative data from the Federal Employment Agency that was enriched with information from a telephone survey. Chapter 2 provides a thorough descriptive analysis of the NSUS that consists of two parts. First, the participant structure of the program is compared with the one of two former programs. In a second step, the study conducts an in-depth characterization of the participants of the NSUS focusing on founding motives, the level of start-up capital and equity used as well as the sectoral distribution of the new business. Furthermore, the business survival, income situation of founders and job creation by the new businesses is analyzed during a period of 19 months after start-up. The contribution of Chapter 4 is to introduce a new explorative data set that allows comparing subsidized start-ups out of unemployment with non-subsidized business start-ups that were founded by individuals who were not unemployed at the time of start-up. Because previous evaluation studies commonly used eligible non-participants amongst the unemployed as control group to assess the labor market effects of the start-up subsidies, the corresponding results hence referred to the effectiveness of the ALMP measure, but could not address the question whether the subsidy leads to similarly successful and innovative businesses compared to non-subsidized businesses. An assessment of this economic/growth aspect is also important, since the subsidy might induce negative effects that may outweigh the positive effects from an ALMP perspective. The main results of Chapter 4 indicate that subsidized founders seem to have no shortages in terms of formal education, but exhibit less employment and industry-specific experience, and are less likely to benefit from intergenerational transmission of start-ups. Moreover, the study finds evidence that necessity start-ups are over-represented among subsidized business founders, which suggests disadvantages in terms of business preparation due to possible time restrictions right before start-up. Finally, the study also detects more capital constraints among the unemployed, both in terms of the availability of personal equity and access to loans. With respect to potential differences between both groups in terms of business development over time, the results indicate that subsidized start-ups out of unemployment face higher business survival rates 19 months after start-up. However, they lag behind regular business founders in terms of income, business growth, and… Advisors/Committee Members: Caliendo, Marco (advisor).