AbstractsChemistry

Treatment and characterisation of oily wastewaters

by M (Mirjam) Karhu




Institution: University of Oulu
Department:
Year: 2015
Keywords: biodegradation; dissolved air flotation; electrocoagulation; emulsion; oily wastewater; surfactant; ultrafiltration; biohajoaminen; elektrokoagulaatio; emulsio; korkeapaineflotaatio; pinta-aktiivinen aine; ultrasuodatus; öljyinen jätevesi; DAF; EC; UF
Posted: 02/05/2017
Record ID: 2123069
Full text PDF: http://urn.fi/urn:isbn:9789526208817


Abstract

Abstract Oily wastewaters are heterogeneous, containing various types of oils, surfactants from detergents, metals etc. Oily wastewaters are produced from a wide range of industries such as metalworking, petroleum refineries, the petrochemical industry, transportation as well as the textile and food industries. Oily wastewaters, especially those containing stable oil-in-water emulsions, require advanced treatment as conventional treatment methods have their limitations to meet ever-stricter environmental regulations. Ultrafiltration is a widely accepted and commonly used treatment method for oily wastewaters. The first aim of this thesis was to increase knowledge concerning the performance of an industrial-scaled ultrafiltration-based process treating concentrated real oily wastewaters. The demand for a more effective pre-treatment method for ultrafiltration to enhance performance and decrease fouling of membrane was observed. The second aim of the thesis was to investigate the suitability and efficiency of different methods for treating concentrated model oil-in-water emulsions and real oily wastewaters. The treatment methods studied were electrocoagulation (electrolytic dissolution of anodic metal), conventional coagulation-flocculation followed by either sedimentation or dissolved air flotation, and dissolved air flotation utilising cationic air bubbles. Electrocoagulation was discovered to be a promising treatment method for various types of oil-in-water emulsions. Dissolved air flotation with cationic modified air bubbles was proven to be an efficient method with even higher treatment results with smaller chemical doses when compared to conventional coagulation-flocculation followed by dissolved air flotation. The biodegradation of various components is an important measure of their impact on the environment in case of spillage. The third aim of the thesis was to explore the biodegradability of different types of oils and surfactants in solution conditions and soils. It was discovered that the biodegradation of light fuel oil continued during a three-month time period, reaching a biodegradation degree of over 60% in mineral-rich soil. For surfactants, their distinct effect on the biodegradation of organic material in soil was observed, and it masked the biodegradation of the surfactants themselves. Tiivistelmä Öljyiset jätevedet ovat heterogeenisiä, sisältäen mm. erityyppisiä öljyjä, metalleja ja pesuaineiden pinta-aktiivisia aineita. Öljyisiä jätevesiä muodostuu laajalti eri teollisuuksista, kuten metallintyöstöstä, öljyn jalostuksesta, petrokemian teollisuudesta, ruoka- ja tekstiiliteollisuudesta sekä liikenteestä. Öljyiset jätevedet, varsinkin stabiileja öljyemulsioita sisältävät, vaativat tehokkaan käsittelymenetelmän, jotta ympäristölainsäädännön ja luvituksen ehdot täyttyvät. Ultrasuodatus on yleisesti käytössä oleva öljyisten jätevesien käsittelymenetelmä. Tämän väitöstyön ensimmäinen tavoite oli lisätä tietoutta teollisen mittakaavan konsentroituneiden öljyisten jätevesien ultrasuodatusprosessien… Advisors/Committee Members: Tanskanen, J. (Juha), Kuokkanen, T. (Toivo), Rämö, J. (Jaakko), Leiviskä, T. (Tiina).