|Institution:||University of Saskatchewan|
|Keywords:||FFT Co-Processors; Decimal Co-Processors; Redundant Number Systems.|
|Full text PDF:||http://hdl.handle.net/10388/ETD-2015-02-1945|
There is a growing demand for high-speed arithmetic co-processors for use in applications with computationally intensive tasks. For instance, Fast Fourier Transform (FFT) co-processors are used in real-time multimedia services and financial applications use decimal co-processors to perform large amounts of decimal computations. Using redundant number systems to eliminate word-wide carry propagation within interim operations is a well-known technique to increase the speed of arithmetic hardware units. Redundant number systems are mostly useful in applications where many consecutive arithmetic operations are performed prior to the final result, making it advantageous for arithmetic co-processors. This thesis discusses the implementation of two popular arithmetic co-processors based on redundant number systems: namely, the binary FFT co-processor and the decimal arithmetic co-processor. FFT co-processors consist of several consecutive multipliers and adders over complex numbers. FFT architectures are implemented based on fixed-point and floating-point arithmetic. The main advantage of floating-point over fixed-point arithmetic is the wide dynamic range it introduces. Moreover, it avoids numerical issues such as scaling and overflow/underflow concerns at the expense of higher cost. Furthermore, floating-point implementation allows for an FFT co-processor to collaborate with general purpose processors. This offloads computationally intensive tasks from the primary processor. The first part of this thesis, which is devoted to FFT co-processors, proposes a new FFT architecture that uses a new Binary-Signed Digit (BSD) carry-limited adder, a new floating-point BSD multiplier and a new floating-point BSD three-operand adder. Finally, a new unit labeled as Fused-Dot-Product-Add (FDPA) is designed to compute AB+CD+E over floating-point BSD operands. The second part of the thesis discusses decimal arithmetic operations implemented in hardware using redundant number systems. These operations are popularly used in decimal floating-point co-processors. A new signed-digit decimal adder is proposed along with a sequential decimal multiplier that uses redundant number systems to increase the operational frequency of the multiplier. New redundant decimal division and square-root units are also proposed. The architectures proposed in this thesis were all implemented using Hardware-Description-Language (Verilog) and synthesized using Synopsys Design Compiler. The evaluation results prove the speed improvement of the new arithmetic units over previous pertinent works. Consequently, the FFT and decimal co-processors designed in this thesis work with at least 10% higher speed than that of previous works. These architectures are meant to fulfill the demand for the high-speed co-processors required in various applications such as multimedia services and financial computations.