Design of Low-Order Controllers using Optimization Techniques

by Martin Hast

Institution: University of Lund
Year: 2015
Keywords: Technology and Engineering
Record ID: 1371209
Full text PDF: http://lup.lub.lu.se/record/5368057



In many applications, especially in the process industry, low-level controllers are the workhorses of the automated production lines. The aim of this study has been to provide simple tuning procedures, either optimization-based methods or tuning rules, for design of low-order controllers. The first part of this thesis deals with PID tuning. Design methods or both SISO and MIMO PID controllers based on convex optimization are presented. The methods consist of solving a nonconvex optimization problem by deriving convex approximations of the original problem and solving these iteratively until convergence. The algorithms are fast because of the convex approximations. The controllers obtained minimize low-frequency sensitivity subject to constraints that ensure robustness to process variations and limitations of control signal effort. The second part of this thesis deals with tuning of feedforward controllers. Tuning rules that minimize the integrated-squared-error arising from measurable step disturbances are derived for a controller that can be interpreted as a filtered and possibly time-delayed PD controller. Using a controller structure that decouples the effects of the feedforward and feedback controllers, the controller is optimal both in open and closed loop settings. To improve the high-frequency noise behavior of the feedforward controller, it is proposed that the optimal controller is augmented with a second-order filter. Several aspects on the tuning of this filter are discussed. For systems with PID controllers, the response to step changes in the reference can be improved by introducing set-point weighting. This can be interpreted as feedforward from the reference signal to the control signal. It is shown how these weights can be found by solving a convex optimization problem. Proportional set-point weight that minimizes the integrated-absolute-error was obtained for a batch of over 130 different processes. From these weights, simple tuning rules were derived and the performance was evaluated on all processes in the batch using five different feedback controller tuning methods. The proposed tuning rules could improve the performance by up to 45% with a modest increase in actuation.