Battery energy storage for intermittent renewable electricity production; Batterienergilager för intermittent förnyelsebar elproduktion

by Steffen Görtz

Institution: Umeå University
Year: 2015
Keywords: Energy storage; Renewable electricity; Engineering and Technology; Environmental Engineering; Energy Systems; Teknik och teknologier; Naturresursteknik; Energisystem; Civilingenjörsprogrammet i Energiteknik; Master of Science Programme in Energy Engineering; Energiteknik; Energiteknik
Record ID: 1370461
Full text PDF: http://urn.kb.se/resolve?urn=urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-104285


Driven by resource politics and climate change, the transition from conventional fossil fuel based and centralized energy generation to distributed renewables is increasing rapidly. Wind and solar power generation offer carbon dioxide neutral electricity but also present some integration difficulties for energy system operators and planners due to intermittent power output. A promising way of dealing with the intermittency from renewables is energy storage. The method of storing energy in the electricity grid, especially by the means of electrochemical storage, has gained a lot of attention over the last years in the energy sector. While most utilities and energy market stakeholders have the basic understanding of energy storage, a more profound knowledge of grid storage applications is often lacking. This thesis aims to highlight and explain possible energy storage applications with focus on renewables integration. Battery energy storage can allow higher amounts of renewable electricity generation to be integrated by smoothening power output, time shifting generated energy to follow demand and increase hosting capacities through peak shaving. Power quality related issues due to intermittency can be mitigated by controlling the storage’s charging patterns to respond to grid variables. For optimal utilization and maximum storage value, several applications should be within the operational repertoire of the storage unit. Other applications including arbitrage, grid investment deferral and load following are discussed. Several battery technologies which have been developed and tested for such applications including lead acid, sodium sulfate and lithium-ion are presented. The most promising battery energy storage technology is lithium-ion with exceptional storage characteristics and most importantly a favorable near term price development. Two case studies on two of Umeå Energy’s low voltage networks simulating high penetrations of solar generation have been carried out to demonstrate mitigation of overvoltage and peak shaving with battery energy storage systems. The simulations show that energy storage systems can successfully be used to aid the integration of renewables in the electricity grid. Present capital costs are still too high for energy storage to be feasible but falling pricing and a developing market is foreseen to lower the hurdles.  The main obstacle for energy storage at grid scale besides high capital costs are, in principle, non-existing legal frameworks regulating the ownership of energy storage systems and system technology standardization. Further discussions on the matter in combination with testing and pilot projects are needed to gain national and international experience with battery energy storage for the successful high share integration of renewables. ; Sinande naturresurser och växthuseffekten driver på övergången från centraliserad kraftproduktion baserad på fossila bränslen till distribuerad förnyelsebar energiproduktion i rask takt. Vind- och solkraft…