|Keywords:||Gasification; Gasifier; Biomass; Bubbling fluidized beds; Reaction kinetics; Engineering and Technology; Teknik och teknologier; Energy Engineering; Energiteknik|
|Full text PDF:||http://urn.kb.se/resolve?urn=urn:nbn:se:mdh:diva-26173|
Biomass is an alternative to fossil fuels that has a lower impact on the environment and is thus of great interest to replace fossil fuels for energy production. There are several technologies to convert the stored energy in biomass into useful energy and this thesis focuses on the process of gasification. The purpose of this thesis is to investigate how the prediction accuracy of gas composition in a kinetic model for fluidized bed gasifier is affected when hydrodynamic parameters are introduced into the model. Two fluidized bed gasifier models has therefore been set up in order to evaluate the affects: one model which only considers the kinetics of a gasifier and a second model which includes both the kinetics and the hydrodynamic parameters for a bubbling fluidized bed. The kinetic model is represented by an already existing kinetic model that is originally derived for a downdraft gasifier which has quite similar biomass gasification processes as fluidized bed gasifiers. Gas residence time differs between the two gasifier types and the model has thus been calibrated by introducing a time correction factor in order to use it for fluidized bed gasifiers and get optimum results. Two sets of experimental data were used for comparison between the two models. The models were compared by comparing the results of the predicted gas composition yield and the amount of unreacted carbon after the reactor at various equivalence ratios (ER). The result shows that the model that only considers reaction kinetics yields best agreement with the experimental data that have been used. One reasons as to why the kinetic model gives a better prediction of gas composition is due to the fact that there are higher reactant concentrations available for chemical reactions in the kinetic, in comparison to the combined model. Less reactant concentrations in the combined model is a result of the bed in the combined model consisting of two phases, according to the two-phase theory of fluidization that have been adapted. Both phases contain gases but the bubble phase is considered solid free, chemical reactions occur therefore only in the emulsion phase since the kinetic model is based on gas-solid reactions. The model that only contains reaction kinetics considers only one phase and all concentrations are available for chemical reactions. Higher char conversion is thus achieved in the model that only contains reaction kinetics and higher gas concentrations are produced.