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Transparency in business and especially in the financial industry has proven to be a crucial matter for its stability and success over time. This dissertation is a case study that focuses, through an ethical perspective, in the particular situation of the Holy See’s IOR – Istituto per le Opere di Religione - in its reformation procedures, which are commonly called altogether as a transparency process. It presents the problems IOR underwent and the recent process of change in the organization. It is analyzed the role that corporate transparency has in the solution of ethical problems of the institute, in particular in what regards the effective implementation of corporate values. In the end, it is argued that corporate transparency is an important factor for the implementation of values in the IOR, for through transparency there is the possibility of scrutiny of the company on the part of stakeholders, which harmonizes all reform measures in the same direction and convinces stakeholders of the institutional changes. However, it is also concluded that transparency is not the only factor to guarantee an ethical conduct, for there is the need of control mechanisms to monitor operations. These conclusions go in line with the existing theory on value implementation in organizations, which states that not only values-based programs but also compliance-based programs are effective in solving ethical problems. There is a revision on the existing literature regarding the role of values, Catholic Social Teachings, transparency and the phenomena of decoupling from institutional values in a business.