|Institution:||Università di Bologna|
|Full text PDF:||http://amsdottorato.unibo.it/6966/1/Benedetta_Rizzo_PhD.pdf|
Results reported in this Thesis contribute to the comprehension of the complicated world of “redox biology”. ROS regulate signalling pathways both in physiological responses and in pathogenesis and progression of diseases. In cancer cells, the increase in ROS generation from metabolic abnormalities and oncogenic signalling may trigger a redox adaptation response, leading to an up-regulation of antioxidant capacity in order to maintain the ROS level below the toxic threshold. Thus, cancer cells would be more dependent on the antioxidant system and more vulnerable to further oxidative stress induced by exogenous ROS-generating agents or compounds that inhibit the antioxidant system. Results here reported indicate that the development of new drugs targeting specific Nox isoforms, responsible for intracellular ROS generation, or AQP isoforms, involved in the transport of extracellular H2O2 toward intracellular targets, might be an interesting novel anti-leukaemia strategy. Furthermore, also the use of CSD peptide, which simulate the VEGFR-2 segregation into caveolae in the inactive form, might be a strategy to stop the cellular response to VEGF signalling. As above stated, in the understanding of the redox biology, it is also important to identify and distinguish the molecular effectors that maintain normal biological and physiological responses, such as agents that stimulate our adaptation systems and elevate our endogenous antioxidant defences or other protective systems. Data here reported indicate that the nutraceutical compound sulforaphane and the Klotho protein are able to stimulate the HO-1 and Prx-1 expression, as well as the GSH levels, confirming their antioxidant and protective role. Finally, results here reported demonstrated that Stevia extracts are involved in insulin regulated glucose metabolism, suggesting that the use of these compounds goes beyond their sweetening power and may also offer therapeutic benefits hence improving the quality of life.