AbstractsBiology & Animal Science

Organic waste streams in energy and biofuel production

by Niko Töyrylä

Institution: Kymenlaakson ammattikorkeakoulu
Year: 2014
Record ID: 1134397
Full text PDF: http://www.theseus.fi/handle/10024/71987


This research is being done for project BLESK, which is funded by the South-East Finland – Russia ENPI CBC –program. This study is about bioenergy and its area of focus is utilization of organic waste streams in energy recovery and biofuel production. The aim of this report is to present modern technologies in the field of municipal waste energy recovery. This study can be applied for educational purposes and to provide general information on modern solutions in the field of bioenergy. The main topics of this research are waste combustion, liquid fuels and biogas. This study takes a stand on current law and regulations and possible future changes in legislation in municipal waste utilization. Waste-to-energy appliances are presented as one option but current legislation prefers recycling and other ways of reusing the waste streams. This includes biofuel productions like biodiesel, renewable diesel and bioethanol in addition to biogas production from landfills or biodegradable waste streams. The European Commission has implemented a directive which obliges Member States to reduce the amount of waste brought to the landfills. Specifically this means that the amount of biodegradable waste that is brought to landfills must be 35% of the 1995 level by 2016. The aim of this directive is to reduce GHG emissions. The directive is called the Landfill Directive (1999/31/ EC). (European Commission. Biodegradble Waste. 2014) The directive does not regulate how this reduction is done. In practice, most countries rely on easy methods like combustion of the waste instead of utilizing it in biofuel and biogas production. Biofuels and biogas would have a much higher retail price than waste incineration and as such should be the preferred method of waste reuse. (European Commission. Biodegradble Waste.2014)