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The objective of this thesis work is to research and implement the use of an optical communication system (fiber optics) as a safe and reliable monitoring system for the oil and gas pipeline industry in Lagos region of Nigeria. These optical fiber cables are laid parallel to oil and gas buried pipelines to monitor and indicate ad-vanced warning in real time situation once leakages occur in these pipelines, thereby allowing pipeline operators to take immediate and strategic actions to re-solve the problem. This integrity and performance of oil and gas pipeline is essential to the smooth operations expected from regulatory authorities. Leakage in pipelines may be as a result of mechanical failure (cracks, corrosion, and welded joint failure) or illegal tampering (drilling, bursting, hot tapping) which could lead to spillage of the product, environmental pollution or even loss of lives, if not adequately addressed in time. As a result of implementation of the project, the use of optical communication system (temperature point sensor) was not sustainable due to the fact that several point sensors has to be considered for monitoring the pipelines. The sensor was used to monitor abnormal temperature changes around the pipeline and thereby giving warnings, through the monitoring software in real time situation. Such monitoring software enabled me to setup important measurement parameters and observe the monitoring processes. Also, the possibility to use distributed sensor where entire cable length serves as linear sensors was considered for a future project. Finally, knowledge acquired in this project work enhances my understanding of the use of Information technology in the field of oil and gas pipeline industry.