Multiterminal HVDC transmissions systems for offshore wind

by Agustí Egea Àlvarez

Institution: Universitat Politècnica de Catalunya
Year: 2014
Record ID: 1126794
Full text PDF: http://hdl.handle.net/10803/279365


Offshore wind is emerging as one of the future energy vectors. Offshore wind power plants locations provide more strong and constant wind speed that allows to extract more power compared to onshore locations. In addition, as wind turbine components transportation is less restricted to terrestrial infrastructure, bigger and more powerful wind turbines can be installed offshore. In Europe, 1,567 MW of offshore wind power was installed in 2013. It represents the 14% of the total wind power installed in Europe. Offshore wind power plants near the shore can be connected to the main grid by means of conventional AC technology. However, if these wind farms are installed further than 80-100 km, the use of AC equipment is economically infeasible due to reactive power issues. In these applications, HVDC system based on static converters can be used. The projects build and commissioned nowadays are based on point-to-point connections, where, each wind farm or wind farm clusters are connected to the terrestrial grid individually. Consequently, these lines might be understood as an extension of the AC system. If different offshore wind farms are interconnected between them and connected at the same time to different AC systems, for example, different countries, the DC grid is created. This scenario creates one of the most important challenges in the electrical power system since its creation, more than 100 years ago. The most relevant challenges to be addressed are the stability and operation of the DC grid and the integration and interaction with the AC grid. This thesis addresses various aspects related to the future Multiterminal-HVDC systems for transmission of offshore wind power. First, the voltage control and the system operations are discussed and verified by means of emulations using an HVDC scaled experimental platform built for this purpose. Voltage stability might be endangered during contingencies due to the different inertia time constant of the AC and the DC system. DC systems only have the inertia of the capacitors compared to synchronous machines rotating masses of the AC systems. Therefore, in faulty conditions the power transmitted through the DC system must be reduced quickly and efficiently. For this reason, in this thesis a coordinated power reduction algorithm taking advantage of Dynamic Braking Resistors (DBR) connected to onshore converter stations and the ability of the power plants to reduce the generated power is presented. From the AC and DC grids integration point of view, the connection point between the offshore grid and the AC grid might be located remotely leading to a connection with a reduced Short Circuit Ratio (SCR). In the literature, several issues regarding the connection of transistor-based power converters to weak AC grid have been reported. In this thesis am advanced control for Voltage Source Converters connected to weak grids is presented and tested by means of simulations. From the AC and DC grids interactions, the voltage stability is not enough to operate a DC grid. Transport…