AbstractsComputer Science

Contributions to 3D Data Registration and Representation

by Vicente Morell Giménez

Institution: University of Alicante
Department: Departamento de Ciencia de la Computación e Inteligencia Artificial
Year: 2014
Keywords: 3D representation method; Growing Neural Gas; Self-Organizing Maps; Topology Preservation; Parallel Computing; CUDA; Real-time; Point Cloud; GPGPU; RGB-D; Noisy 3D data; 3D registration; 3D compression; Arquitectura y Tecnología de Computadores; Ciencia de la Computación e Inteligencia Artificial
Record ID: 1125011
Full text PDF: http://hdl.handle.net/10045/42364


Nowadays, new computers generation provides a high performance that enables to build computationally expensive computer vision applications applied to mobile robotics. Building a map of the environment is a common task of a robot and is an essential part to allow the robots to move through these environments. Traditionally, mobile robots used a combination of several sensors from different technologies. Lasers, sonars and contact sensors have been typically used in any mobile robotic architecture, however color cameras are an important sensor due to we want the robots to use the same information that humans to sense and move through the different environments. Color cameras are cheap and flexible but a lot of work need to be done to give robots enough visual understanding of the scenes. Computer vision algorithms are computational complex problems but nowadays robots have access to different and powerful architectures that can be used for mobile robotics purposes. The advent of low-cost RGB-D sensors like Microsoft Kinect which provide 3D colored point clouds at high frame rates made the computer vision even more relevant in the mobile robotics field. The combination of visual and 3D data allows the systems to use both computer vision and 3D processing and therefore to be aware of more details of the surrounding environment. The research described in this thesis was motivated by the need of scene mapping. Being aware of the surrounding environment is a key feature in many mobile robotics applications from simple robotic navigation to complex surveillance applications. In addition, the acquisition of a 3D model of the scenes is useful in many areas as video games scene modeling where well-known places are reconstructed and added to game systems or advertising where once you get the 3D model of one room the system can add furniture pieces using augmented reality techniques. In this thesis we perform an experimental study of the state-of-the-art registration methods to find which one fits better to our scene mapping purposes. Different methods are tested and analyzed on different scene distributions of visual and geometry appearance. In addition, this thesis proposes two methods for 3d data compression and representation of 3D maps. Our 3D representation proposal is based on the use of Growing Neural Gas (GNG) method. This Self-Organizing Maps (SOMs) has been successfully used for clustering, pattern recognition and topology representation of various kind of data. Until now, Self-Organizing Maps have been primarily computed offline and their application in 3D data has mainly focused on free noise models without considering time constraints. Self-organising neural models have the ability to provide a good representation of the input space. In particular, the Growing Neural Gas (GNG) is a suitable model because of its flexibility, rapid adaptation and excellent quality of representation. However, this type of learning is time consuming, specially for high-dimensional input data. Since real applications often work under…