Whose voice is heard in Iran? Who decided to put Iran in possible conflict with other states over its possession of nuclear technology? A typical neorealist answer would be that there are determined Iranian national interests at stake, for instance, to obtain great power and thereby, become a greater power. Which, therefore, leads us to the conclusion; the officials under different positions in the Iranian government, all are bound to the national interests. Hence, it is crucial to understand the effects that the world-view of the revolutionary supreme leader Khomeini has had on present day Iran, and what kind of means he used in order to accomplish this ambition. We will examine Iran’s internal mechanisms and explore the roots that mould the structure within. Thereafter, based on these factors, we will draw conclusions, on how some of them affect their foreign policy decision-making. As a prime example of the conflict, we will focus upon aspects such as sanctions imposed by the UN, along with past conflicts which have contributed to the enmity between the conflicting nations. However, to understand the problem in full, we will examine the external restraints that form the base of the current conflict, taking into account some of the main state adversaries to the Islamic Republic of Iran. Again, we will draw comparison from the past to present day, in order to achieve a broader perspective to the complexity of the conflict.