Speculating the triggers of conflicts, in general, is complicated. Over time, there have been diverse debates on the drivers of violent conflict, in pastoral areas and the conceptualisation of novel ideologies. The paper identifies and examines the core factors that trigger, and drive the conflict in the Turkana area. A political and ecologically marginal arid area, occupied by nomads in Northern Kenya and Southern Ethiopia. This review finds that both environmental stresses brought about by climate change, political circumstance, and cultural components all contribute and play a crucial role in the onset of conflict in the Turkana area. These multiple causative factors are necessary to comprehend the strife in the studied area. Also noteworthy is the social structure of the Turkana tribe, and how acts of raiding (stealing livestock) have contributed to insecurity and violence in the area.