AbstractsBiology & Animal Science

Graphene Oxide Nanohybrids as Platforms for Carboplatin Loading and Delivery

by Sami A Makharza

Institution: Technische Universität Dresden
Department: Fakultät Mathematik und Naturwissenschaften
Degree: PhD
Year: 2015
Record ID: 1113531
Full text PDF: http://nbn-resolving.de/urn:nbn:de:bsz:14-qucosa-162933


Nanographene oxide particles (NGO) were produced via oxidative exfoliation of graphite. Three different sizes of NGO (300 nm, 200 nm and 100 nm) have been separated by using probe sonication and sucrose density gradient centrifugation. There is great interest in functionalized NGO as a nanocarrier for in vitro and in vivo drug delivery, in order to improve dispersibility and stability of the nanocarrier platforms in physiological media. In this study, the NGO particles were covalently functionalized with zero generation polyamidoamide (PAMAM-G0) and with gelatin via noncovalent interaction. Spectroscopic techniques have been used to discriminate the chemical states of NGO prior and after functionalization. The X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) revealed a clear change in the chemical state of NGO after functionalization, for both covalent and noncovalent approaches. Raman spectroscopy gave obvious insight after oxidation of graphite and functionalization of NGO particles depending on the variation of intensity ratios between D, G and 2D bands. The Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) exhibited the presence of oxygen containing functional groups distributed onto graphene sheets after oxidation of graphite. Furthermore, the FTIR is complementary with the XPS which performed a strong reduction in the oxygen contents after functionalization. UV visible spectroscopy was used to understand the binding capacity of gelatin coated NGO particles. The Microscopy tools, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and atomic force microscopy (AFM) are used to estimate the dimensions of NGO particles (thickness and lateral width). The nanohybrid systems (NGO-PAMAM and Gelatin-NGO) loaded with carboplatin (CP) were sought for anticancer activity investigation in HeLa and neuroblastoma cancer cells respectively. Mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) were used as a model of normal cells. On HeLa cells, the pristine NGO particles with average widths of 200 nm and 300 nm showed a cytotoxic effect at low (50 g.ml−1) and high (100 g.ml−1) concentrations. While the pristine NGO sample with an average width of 100 nm revealed no significant cytotoxicity at 50 g.ml−1, and only recorded a 10% level at 100 g.ml−1. The mesenchymal stem cells showed less than 35% viability for all size distributions. After functionalization with PAMAM, the carrier was found to be able to deliver carboplatin to the cancer cells, by enhancing the drug anticancer efficiency. Moreover, the carboplatin loaded NGO carrier shows no significant effect on the viability of hMSCs even at high concentration (100 g.ml−1). On neuroblastoma cells, the cell viability assay validated gelatin-NGO nanohybrids as a useful nanocarrier for CP release and delivery, without obvious signs of toxicity. The nano-sized NGO (200 nm and 300 nm) did not enable CP to kill the cancer cells efficiently, whilst the CP loaded gelatin-NGO 100 nm resulted in a synergistic activity through increasing the local concentration of CP inside the cancer cells.