AbstractsEarth & Environmental Science

Epitaxial Ge-Sb-Te Thin Films by Pulsed Laser Deposition

by Erik Thelander




Institution: Universität Leipzig
Department: Physik und Geowissenschaften
Degree: PhD
Year: 2015
Record ID: 1112392
Full text PDF: http://nbn-resolving.de/urn:nbn:de:bsz:15-qucosa-164106


Abstract

This thesis deals with the synthesis and characterization of Ge-Te-Sb (GST) thin films. The films were deposited using a Pulsed Laser Deposition (PLD) method and mainly characterized with XRD, SEM, AFM and TEM. For amorphous and polycrystalline films, un-etched Si(100) was used. The amorphous films showed a similar crystallization behavior as films deposited with sputtering and evaporation techniques. When depositing GST on un-etched Si(100) substrates at elevated substrate temperatures (130-240°C), polycrystalline but highly textured films were obtained. The preferred growth orientation was either GST(111) or GST(0001) depending on if the films were cubic or hexagonal. Epitaxial films were prepared on crystalline substrates. On KCl(100), a mixed growth of hexagonal GST(0001) and cubic GST(100) was observed. The hexagonal phase dominates at low temperatures whereas the cubic phase dominates at high temperatures. The cubic phase is accompanied with a presumed GST(221) orientation when the film thickness exceeds ~70 nm. Epitaxial films were obtained with deposition rates as high as 250 nm/min. On BaF2(111), only (0001) oriented epitaxial hexagonal GST films are found, independent of substrate temperature, frequency or deposition background pressure. At high substrate temperatures there is a loss of Ge and Te which shifts the crystalline phase from Ge2Sb2Te5 towards GeSb2Te4. GST films deposited at room temperature on BaF2(111) were in an amorphous state, but after exposure to an annealing treatment they crystallize in an epitaxial cubic structure. Film deposition on pre-cleaned and buffered ammonium fluoride etched Si(111) show growth of epitaxial hexagonal GST, similar to that of the deposition on BaF2(111). When the Si-substrates were heated directly to the deposition temperature films of high crystal-line quality were obtained. An additional heat treatment of the Si-substrates prior to deposition deteriorated the crystal quality severely. The gained results show that PLD can be used as a method in order to obtain high quality epitaxial Ge-Sb-Te films from a compound target and using high deposition rates.