AbstractsComputer Science

Secure Virtualization of Latency-Constrained Systems

by Adam Lackorzynski

Institution: Technische Universität Dresden
Department: Fakultät Informatik
Degree: PhD
Year: 2015
Record ID: 1110668
Full text PDF: http://nbn-resolving.de/urn:nbn:de:bsz:14-qucosa-164170


Virtualization is a mature technology in server and desktop environments where multiple systems are consolidate onto a single physical hardware platform, increasing the utilization of todays multi-core systems as well as saving resources such as energy, space and costs compared to multiple single systems. Looking at embedded environments reveals that many systems use multiple separate computing systems inside, including requirements for real-time and isolation properties. For example, modern high-comfort cars use up to a hundred embedded computing systems. Consolidating such diverse configurations promises to save resources such as energy and weight. In my work I propose a secure software architecture that allows consolidating multiple embedded software systems with timing constraints. The base of the architecture builds a microkernel-based operating system that supports a variety of different virtualization approaches through a generic interface, supporting hardware-assisted virtualization and paravirtualization as well as multiple architectures. Studying guest systems with latency constraints with regards to virtualization showed that standard techniques such as high-frequency time-slicing are not a viable approach. Generally, guest systems are a combination of best-effort and real-time work and thus form a mixed-criticality system. Further analysis showed that such systems need to export relevant internal scheduling information to the hypervisor to support multiple guests with latency constraints. I propose a mechanism to export those relevant events that is secure, flexible, has good performance and is easy to use. The thesis concludes with an evaluation covering the virtualization approach on the ARM and x86 architectures and two guest operating systems, Linux and FreeRTOS, as well as evaluating the export mechanism.